Imaging method for the spatial description of complex microstructures 3D microstructure imaging using FIB (focused ion beam) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) technology is based on a serial section technique. FIB makes it possible to remove material from the specimen step by step with an accuracy of a few nanometres. The cross-sectional areas are imaged using SEM. Major advantages of this method are the resolution, which is suitable for many microstructures, and the numerous contrast possibilities of SEM. In addition to backscattered electron or secondary electron contrast, integrating a chemical analysis by means of EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) or a determination of the phase and crystal orientation using EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) recently became possible as well. Depending on the material, the maximum specimen volume has an edge length of 50 to 100 μm.